مقایسه برخی شاخص‌های فیزیکو-شیمیایی و میکروبی خاک در سال‌های پس از آتش سوزی در جنگل‌های زاگرس شهرستان پاوه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشگاه رازی

2 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشگاه رازی

3 استادیار گروه منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی

چکیده

با افزایش فراوانی آتش­سوزی­ها در جنگل­های زاگرس، بررسی کیفیت خاک در کوتاه و بلند­مدت بسیار با اهمیت است. در این پژوهش تغییرات برخی ویژگی­های فیزیکی-شیمیایی و ویژگی­های میکروبی در کوتاه­مدت، میان­مدت و بلند­مدت پس از آتش­سوزی مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت. برای این منظور، در یک رویشگاه سه تیمار پساآتش­سوزی با زمان­های1، 3 و 10 سال پس از آتش­سوزی انتخاب و به ترتیب با TSF=1، TSF=3 و TSF=10 نشان داده شد. در نزدیک­ترین نقطه به هر تیمار، یک شاهد نیز برای هر یک از تیمارها در نظر گرفته و به ترتیب با C1، C3 و C10 نشان داده شد. نمونه­برداری از عمق0 تا 20 سانتی­متری انجام شد. در مجموع با در نظر گرفتن 3 تیمار پساآتش­سوزی و 3 شاهد و هر کدام با 4 تکرار در مجموع تعداد 24 نمونه مرکب خاک برداشته شد. برخی ویژگی­های فیزیکو شیمیایی و میکروبی خاک به منظور مقایسه تغییرات آنها در سال­های پس از آتش­سوزی اندازه­گیری و تجزیه و تحلیل شد. نتایج نشان داد که تغییر معنی­داری در بافت خاک مشاهده نشد. رطوبت خاک در تیمارTSF=1 کاهش معنی­داری یافت اما در تیمارهای TSF=3 و TSF=10 به سطح قبل از آتش­سوزی برگشت. جرم مخصوص ظاهری در تیمارهای TSF=1 و TSF=3 کاهش یافت اما تیمار TSF=10 با C1 اختلاف معنی­داری نداشت.pH ، CEC،EC  و P در تیمار TSF=1 افزایش معنی­داری نسبت به C1 نشان داد. در تیمارهای TSF=3 و TSF=10، مقدارpH  و CEC به سطح قبل از آتش­سوزی برگشته اما EC و P خاک نسبت به شاهد کاهش معنی­دار داشتند. کربن آلی و نیتروژن کل در همه زمان­های پس از آتش­سوزی کاهش معنی­دار داشت. نسبت C:N خاک تغییر معنی­داری نشان نداد. کربن زی توده میکروبی یک سال پس از آتش­سوزی کاهش معنی­داری نشان داد، اما در تیمار TSF=3 و TSF=10 اختلاف معنی­داری با شاهد نداشت. تنفس برانگیخته در تیمار TSF=1 به طور معنی­داری افزایش یافت اما در تیمارهای TSF=3 و TSF=10 کاهشی معنی­دار داشت. تنفس پایه در تیمارهای TSF=1، TSF=3 و TSF=10 کاهش معنی­داری نسبت به شاهدشان نشان دادند. کسر متابولیک در تیمارهای TSF=1 و TSF=3 افزایش معنی­داری نسبت به شاهد نشان داد اما در تیمار TSF=10 به سطح قبل از آتش­سوزی بهبود یافت. کسر میکروبی در تیمار TSF=1 نسبت به شاهد کاهش یافت اما در تیمار TSF=3 افزایش در تیمار TSF=10 به سطح قبل از آتش­سوزی بهبود یافت. با توجه به نتایج آنالیز چند متغیره (تشخیصی) همه تیمارها از یکدیگر تفکیک شدند. گرچه جداسازی تیمارها بر اساس ویژگی­های فیزیکوشیمیایی خاک نسبت به ویژگی­های میکروبی خاک بهتر انجام شده بود. نتیجه­گیری شد که در جداسازی تیمارها، مهم­ترین متغیرهای فیزیکوشیمیایی شامل هدایت الکتریکی، نیتروژن، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی و فسفر و مهم­ترین متغیرهای میکروبی شامل کربن زی توده میکروبی، تنفس پایه و برانگیخته و کسر میکروبی بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparing Some Physicochemical and Microbial Indices of Soil in Different Years after Fire in Zagros Forests in Paveh County

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Sadeghifar 1
  • A. Beheshti Ale Agha 2
  • M. Pourreza 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate student, Razi University
2 Assistant Professor, Razi University
3 Assistant Professor, Razi University
چکیده [English]

With increase in fire frequency in the Zagros forests, long term and short term evaluation of soil quality is very important. In this study, changes in some physico-chemical and microbial properties of soils were compared in short, medium and long-term after fire. For this purpose, three post-fire treatments were selected and labeled as TSF=1, TSF=3 and TSF=10 years after fire. In the nearest neighbor of each fire treatment a relevant unburned area was selected as the control and labeled as C1, C3 and C10, corresponding to the post-fire treatments. Soil sampling was performed from the depth of 0-20 cm in 4 replications. Overall, 24 composite soil samples were collected for post-fire treatments and their relevant controls. Some physicochemical and microbial properties were measured in soil samples. Results showed no changes in soil texture. Soil saturated moisture decreased for TSF=1, while it was recovered for TSF=3 and TSF=10. Soil bulk density decreased both in TSF=1 and TSF=3, while no changes were observed for TSF=10 compared to C10. There was a significant increase in soil pH, CEC, EC, and P for TSF=1 compared to C1. However, for TSF=3 and TSF=10, pH and CEC were recovered to the pre-fire level and soil P and EC were significantly lower than their controls. Soil organic carbon and N remained significantly lower than their control in all treatments. No significant change was observed in soil C:N ratio in any treatment. Microbial carbon biomass significantly decreased for TSF=1 compared to C1, while no significant changes were observed for TSF=3 and TSF=10 compared to C3 and C10, respectively. Soil induced respiration increased significantly for TSF=1, while it decreased significantly for TSF=3 and TSF=10 controls. Soil basal respiration significantly decreased in all post-fire treatments compared to their controls. Metabolic quotient significantly increased for TSF=1 and TSF=3, however, it recovered in TSF=10 to the pre-fire level. There was a significant decrease in microbial quotient for TSF=1, however, it increased significantly for TSF=3 and recovered to the pre-fire level for TSF=10. All the treatments were significantly discriminated using multivariate analysis (discriminant analysis). It was concluded that EC, N, CEC, and P were the most important physicochemical properties while microbial biomass carbon, basal and induced respiration, and microbial quotient were the most important microbial properties of soil for discriminating treatments. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Microbial carbon biomass
  • Metabolic quotient
  • Soil respiration
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