مدل ارزیابی اثر بخشی مالچ‌پاشی در افزایش میزان نفوذ عمقی آب باران در دشت شهرکرد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری منابع آب، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

یکی از مهمترین منابع تامین آب کشاورزی در مناطق خشک، آب‌های زیرزمینی است. نفوذ باران به داخل زمین به عنوان یکی از منابع تغذیه آبهای زیرزمینی از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. در این پژوهش کارایی مالچ‌ها در افزایش نفوذ عمقی آب باران در دشت شهرکرد مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور 8 بارش از منحنی‌های شدت مدت فراوانی منطقه با دوره بازگشت 2 و 5 سال انتخاب شد. این بارش‌ها، توسط یک دستگاه باران ساز به صورت مصنوعی در لایسیمترهایی با شرایط یکسان و مالچ‌های متفاوت شامل شن، ماسه، مخلوط شن و ماسه با نسبت یکسان و خاک بدون مالچ ایجاد شد و میزان نفوذ عمقی آنها مورد آزمایش قرار گرفت. طی این آزمایش­ها تعداد 192 داده برای پارامترهای رطوبت خاک، دمای هوا و نفوذ عمقی باران برداشت گردید. بر این اساس، روابطی جهت برآورد میزان نفوذ عمقی آب باران در هر بارش و برآورد میزان تبخیر از خاک در هریک از این مالچ‌ها و خاک بدون مالچ به طور جداگانه استخراج و کارایی و دقت این روابط به کمک ضریب تبیین و معیار نش-ساتکلیف بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که روابط استخراج شده ضریب تبیین در محدوده­ی97/0-98/0 و معیار نش-ساتکلیف در محدوده­ی 96/0-98/0 دارند. بر اساس این روابط و معادله بیلان آب در خاک، مدل رطوبتی خاک تهیه شد. به منظور ارزیابی کارایی مالچ­ها در افزایش رطوبت خاک و نفوذ عمقی آب باران این مدل براساس داده­های بارش و دمای یک سال منطقه مورد مطالعه اجرا گردید. نتایج نشان داد که میزان نفوذ عمقی در طی این دوره در کلیه مالچ­های مورد بررسی نسبت به خاک بدون مالچ افزایش داشته و بیشترین این میزان در مالچ شنی معادل 1/17% شد. این مقدار نسبت به خاک بدون مالچ افزایش 21% را نشان داد. لذا مالچ پاشی اراضی کشاورزی می‌تواند موجب افزایش تغذیه آبخوان ناشی از افزایش نفوذ عمقی آب باران به داخل خاک به عنوان یکی از منابع تأمین آب کشاورزی گردد. اما می­بایست در هنگام انتخاب این نوع مالچ ضمن درنظر گرفتن اثرات مثبت آن در حفظ رطوبت خاک، مسائل اجرایی آن نیز در سطح وسیع در نظر گرفته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Model for Evaluation of Mulching Effectiveness on Increasing Rainwater Deep Percolation in Shahrkord Plain

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. E. Banihabib 1
  • B. Vaziri 2
1 Associate Professor, Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran
2 PhD. Student, Water Resources Engineering, Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

One of the most important sources of agricultural water supply in arid areas is groundwater. Moreover, rain water percolation in the soil is the main source of groundwater recharge. Therefore, in this research, the efficiency of various mulches in increasing the percolation depth of rainwater was investigated in Shahrekord Plain. Eight precipitation events from the IDF curves of the study area with 2 and 5 years return periods were selected and the deep percolation of these rainfalls was tested in lysimeters with the same conditions and different mulches including gravel, sand, mixed sand and gravel, and the same soil texture without mulch. A total of 192 data were collected for soil moisture, air temperature and rain percolation. Furthermore, the equations for estimating the depth of rainwater percolation in each rainfall and the estimation of evaporation from soil under each mulch and soil without mulch were derived separately and the efficiency and accuracy of these equations were investigated using the Nash-Sutcliffe index and the coefficient of determination. The results showed that the derived relations had a coefficient of determination in the range of 0.98-0.99 and the Nash-Sutcliff index in the range of 0.98-0.96. Based on these equations and the water balance equation in soil, a soil moisture model was developed. Then, to evaluate the efficiency of mulches in increasing soil moisture and deep water percolation, this model was performed based on one year rainfall and temperature data of the study area. The results showed that the amount of percolation during this period in all studied mulches increased in comparison with the soil without mulch. The highest percolation amount was 17.1% in gravel mulch, which shows 21% increase compared to the non-mulched soil. Therefore, mulching of agricultural land can increase aquifer recharging due to increased percolation of rainwater into the soil as one of the sources for supplying agricultural water. However, considering the positive effects of mulching in saving soil moisture, its implementation issues should be considered broadly when selecting this type of mulch.





One of the most important sources of agricultural water supply in arid areas is groundwater. Moreover, rain water percolation in the soil is the main source of groundwater recharge. Therefore, in this research, the efficiency of various mulches in increasing the percolation depth of rainwater was investigated in Shahrekord Plain. Eight precipitation events from the IDF curves of the study area with 2 and 5 years return periods were selected and the deep percolation of these rainfalls was tested in lysimeters with the same conditions and different mulches including gravel, sand, mixed sand and gravel, and the same soil texture without mulch. A total of 192 data were collected for soil moisture, air temperature and rain percolation. Furthermore, the equations for estimating the depth of rainwater percolation in each rainfall and the estimation of evaporation from soil under each mulch and soil without mulch were derived separately and the efficiency and accuracy of these equations were investigated using the Nash-Sutcliffe index and the coefficient of determination. The results showed that the derived relations had a coefficient of determination in the range of 0.98-0.99 and the Nash-Sutcliff index in the range of 0.98-0.96. Based on these equations and the water balance equation in soil, a soil moisture model was developed. Then, to evaluate the efficiency of mulches in increasing soil moisture and deep water percolation, this model was performed based on one year rainfall and temperature data of the study area. The results showed that the amount of percolation during this period in all studied mulches increased in comparison with the soil without mulch. The highest percolation amount was 17.1% in gravel mulch, which shows 21% increase compared to the non-mulched soil. Therefore, mulching of agricultural land can increase aquifer recharging due to increased percolation of rainwater into the soil as one of the sources for supplying agricultural water. However, considering the positive effects of mulching in saving soil moisture, its implementation issues should be considered broadly when selecting this type of mulch.





 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aquifer recharge
  • Mulch
  • Groundwater
  • Agricultural water
  • Soil Moisture
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