اثر کود اوره با پوشش‌ پلیمری و اوره معمولی بر کارایی نیتروژن و عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد برنج

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشی بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی جنوب

2 استان کرمان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، جیرفت، ایران، کارشناس ارشد گروه تکنولوژی زراعی مرکز ترویج و توسعه تکنولوژی هراز، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، آمل، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهشی بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی جنوب استان کرمان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، جیرفت، ایران

چکیده

نیتروژن یکی از مهم‏ترین مواد مغذی در تولید محصول است اما کارایی آن در کود اوره خصوصاً در شالیزارها پایین است. بازدهی نیتروژن می­تواند با کاهش انحلال اوره در خاک افزایش یابد. بنابراین پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی اثر کودپلیمری اوره بر رشد و عملکرد برنج رقم طارم هاشمی انجام شد. به این منظور آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو مکان اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل T0:شاهد، T1:اوره معمولی(در دو تقسیط)، T2:اوره پلیمری، T3:اوره معمولی(30%)+پلیمری(70%) (استفاده بعد از نشاء) و T4:اوره معمولی(30%)+پوشش‏دار(70%)( اوره پلیمری در زمان نشاء و اوره معمولی در زمان خوشه‏دهی) بود. نتایج نشان داد که اثر مکان تنها بر صفات تعداد پنجه و تعداد خوشه معنی­دار بود و سایر صفات تحت تأثیر این عامل قرار نگرفتند. ولی صفات تعداد پنجه، تعداد خوشه، ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد دانه ، عملکرد زیست توده، عملکرد دانه، شاخص برداشت و کارایی بازیافت نیتروژن به طور معنی­داری تحت تأثیر نوع کود اوره و روش مصرف آن قرار گرفتند. نتایج مقایسه میانگین نشان داد که حداکثر تعداد پنجه و خوشه در تیمار T3 در دو مکان به ترتیب دارای میانگین 5/24 و 33/20 بود که نسبت به تیمار شاهد به ترتیب 52% و 5/47% افزایش نشان داد. میانگین عملکرد دانه در تیمار T3 در دو مکان، نسبت به تیمارهای شاهد، T1، T2 و T4 به‏ ترتیب 1/43%، 17%، 1/18% و 1/18% بیشتر بود. برای رقم طارم هاشمی و در هر دو مکان مصرف اوره پوشش پلیمری به صورت مخلوط با اوره معمولی، در افزایش بازیافت نیتروژن و کاهش تلفات آن مؤثر بود اما اثربخشی این تیمار کودی در مزرعه با بافت شنی لوم بیشتر بود و می­تواند مناسب­ترین روش مصرف کود در این خاک­ها باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Polymer Coated and Ordinary Urea Fertilizer on Nitrogen Efficiency and Rice Yield and Its Components

نویسندگان [English]

  • saber heidari 1
  • Majid Niknezhad 2
  • Seid Mohammad Alavi Siney 3
  • Morteza Eshraghi-Nejad 3
1 Faculty Member of Soil and Water Research Department, South Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Jiroft, Iran
2 M.Sc. Crop Science Technology, Haraz Extension and Technology Development Center, AREEO, Amol, Iran
3 Faculty members of Horticulture Crops Research Department, South Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Jiroft, Iran
چکیده [English]

Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients in crop production, but its efficiency in urea fertilizer is low, especially in paddy fields. Nitrogen yield can be increased by reducing the dissolution of urea in the soil. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of polymer-coated urea fertilizer on growth and yield of rice cv.Tarom Hashemi. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in two locations. Experimental treatments included T0: control, T1: two splits of ordinary urea (OU), T2: coated urea (CU), T3: OU (30%)+CU (70%)(use after transplanting) and T4: OU (30%)+CU (70%). CU was used at the time of transplanting and OU at heading. The results showed that the location effect was significant only on tiller number and head number/heap. However, the type of urea fertilizer and application method significantly affected tiller number, head number, plant height, grain number, straw yield, grain yield, Harvest Index, and N recovery. Average of the maximum numbers of tillers (24.5) and heads (20.33) in T3 treatment in the two sites showed, respectively, 52% and 47.5% increase compared to the control treatment. Average grain yields in T3 treatment in the two fields were 43.1%, 17%, 18.1%, and 18.1% higher than, respectively, the control treatments, T1, T2, and T4. For Tarom Hashemi cultivar, while application of polymer CU mixed with OU was effective in increasing nitrogen recycling and reducing its losses in both places, the effectiveness of this treatment in the field with loamy sand soil was more. Therefore, this can be the most appropriate method of fertilizer application in these soils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rice grain yield
  • Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency
  • paddy fields soil
  • cv.Tarom Hashemi
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